In the proposal, physicist Roberto De Luca from the University of Salerno in Italy has suggested that flowing salt water could generate an electromotive force, which in turn could generate an electric power output. In his theoretical analysis, he considers letting salt water (containing sodium and chlorine ions) run through a rectangular pipe that has two metal electrodes on the sides, under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field. In this set-up, the Lorentz force acts on the sodium and chlorine ions in the salt water, creating a Faraday voltage across the two electrodes, and producing an electromotive force.”I started considering the question Dr. Pasquale Desideri, a Roman chemist, asked,” De Luca told PhysOrg.com. “If a transverse magnetic field is applied to salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe, would an electromotive force appear at the sides of the pipe itself? This question was interesting both from a didactical and a scientific point of view. Didactically, one could come up with an interdisciplinary lecture, making a comparison between the electrical transport properties of the ‘Fermi sea’ (the collection of free electrons in a metal) and the ‘ordinary sea’ (which a physicist could conceive as a collection of rather free Na+ and Cl- ionic charges diluted in water, besides a place to go in summertime).” De Luca discovered that an experiment conducted in 1972 (by Wright and Van Der Beken) had demonstrated that Desideri’s hypothesis was true: salt water flowing in a pipe under a transverse magnetic field does show an effect, similar to the Hall effect, in conducting metals. De Luca thought that this simple fact deserved more attention.As he showed in his analysis, in order to produce a steady current in this device, the positive and negative electrodes experience different reactions. At one electrode, water is reduced to its components, resulting in oxygen and hydrogen gas. At the other electrode, chlorine ions are oxidized, producing chlorine gas. De Luca investigated the minimum concentration of sodium chloride in the water required to maintain a steady current. He calculated that only a small concentration of the ions is needed to establish a potential difference between the electrodes, and normal salt water has a significantly higher concentration than required. (The average salinity of seawater is about 3.5%, and about 78% of these salts is sodium chloride.) The technique also requires that the salt water flow through rectangular pipes with a very small height (so that they are nearly one-dimensional). Although the technique wouldn’t work in most natural locations, De Luca suggests that some desalination plants – where salt water is forced to run through small ducts – may provide an adequate infrastructure for the system. If so, desalination plants might also function as alternative electric power sources. “When I was sure that an electromotive force and hydrogen gas could be obtained from letting salt water circulate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, I thought about the huge desalination plants, where intake of salt water from the sea is needed. In general, these plants are run by oil, even though they are mostly located in places where solar power is present in abundance. Getting some power out of these plants simply by applying a transverse magnetic field to pipes could mean saving some power. Besides, getting hydrogen gas from sea water could gives us hope that in the future we would not easily run out of fuel.'”There are still some challenges that this scheme faces, but De Luca has showed the potential using this method to produce hydrogen gas in a natural and inexpensive way. Apart from applications, the concept could be used in introductory physics classes to teach students about the transport properties of ionic aqueous solutions and conducting materials. “I am now sure that most people will come up saying that these applications are rather difficult to implement and, even though some uses of this simple theoretical analysis can be envisioned, the amount of power one can derive from these systems is rather small,” he said. “Scientifically, however, one is mainly concerned with the clear statement of some well-defined facts. In particular, I can say that it can be nowadays stated that hydrogen gas can be cheaply produced by solar energy, as already noticed in a previous paper, and can also be produced by simple electrodynamic effects. How cheaply in the latter case? Consider that seas do not ever stand still and that, luckily enough, there exist so called permanent magnets.” More information: De Luca, R. “Lorentz force on sodium and chlorine ions in a salt water solution flow under a transverse magnetic field.” European Journal of Physics, 30 (2009) 459-466.© 2009 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Salt Water System Could Generate Hydrogen (2009, March 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-03-salt-hydrogen.html Scientists revisit 1833 hydrogen production experiment (PhysOrg.com) — The idea of generating hydrogen from salt water has often been claimed to work effectively. However, the systems proposed so far generally require a much greater energy input than the energy they produce, making them impractical for energy generation. Now, a recently revived system may be able to cheaply generate a small amount of power. In this illustration of the system, salt water flows through a rectangular pipe under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field, B0. The Lorentz force causes the charged sodium and chlorine ions to accumulate near the metal plates on the sides of the pipe, generating a constant electric field, E. Image credit: R. De Luca. Explore further
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Nvidia has announced their brand new quad-core mobile processor at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. The new processor was given the interestingly superheroic name Kal-El. Just in case you did not read a lot of comic books as a kid, this is the name that Superman was given by his parents on his home planet of Krypton. Citation: Nvidia releases the Kal-El quad-core mobile chip (2011, February 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-02-nvidia-kal-el-quad-core-mobile-chip.html Explore further During a live demonstration at the Mobile World Congress Nvidia showed off the speed that Kal-El can give to web browsing, with speeds that are two times faster than other dual-core processors currently on the market. Of course, you really cannot simply take the companies word for it. A lot of factors can effect the speed of browsing.It is time for us to bring in an objective measure. When tested, Kal-El received a CoreMark score of 11,352. That score is, as promised, roughly twice the performance rating score of Nvidia’s Tegra 2. The Tegra 2 received a CoreMark score of 5,840. NVIDIA And Opera Team To Accelerate The Full Web On Mobile Devices Project Kal-El web-browsing benchmark The Kal-El processor is expected to ship in as-yet-unnamed tablets by August of 2011 and be featured in smartphones by Christmas 2011. Though a few lucky customers are already getting samples of the products made with the new Nvidia chip currently. The names of the devices that are sporting these enhanced chips were not released. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Coremark performance on Kal-El As it turns out Kal-El is only the beginning of these super hero themed chips. A whole line of heroic processors are expected to come to the market between now and 2014, with increasing speeds. Future chips will sport names such as Wayne, Logan, and Stark. Stark is expected to be the most advanced of the planned chips in this line with an improvement in performance of up to 75x, when compared to the Tegra 2. More information: Nvidia blog: blogs.nvidia.com/2011/02/tegra … re-mobile-processor/
Visitors of United art Fair will witness some fine Aiyannar terracota art. The ancient art of making art pieces by moulding and baking unglzed clay, which is limited to a few artists in country will be on display. Magnificent figures of horses that were worshiped as protective dieties in Tamil Nadu will be a part of the exhibition. These horses are upto six meters in height, accessorised with bells, mirrors, grotesque faces and crocodiles among other regional variations. The style of the horses vary from area to area; some are more realistic or more abstract but they are all complete with harness and reins. The form of these terracotta horses were found at Aiyanar shrines in Salem and Pudukottai districts was noted in 1909. The curator of this show Garima Jain is a young facilitator for art projects and promoter of contemporary Indian Art and Craft. The pieces are on display to promote and support dying art of terracota. The pieces will be on display at Pragati Maidan during the fair.
Guests at Singh Sahib, Eros Hotel, Nehru Place, experienced a specially crafted five-course modern Indian menu paired with different expressions of Glenmorangie. Experience the art and journey of malt making along with the history, attributes, and consumption styles of luxury spirits over a formal tasting session with Sommelier Rohan Jelkie of Moet Hennessy India. Priced at Rs 3500 (plus taxes) per person, the evening offered single malts with four variants of Glenmorangie – The Lasanta, The Quinta Ruban, The Original and The Nectar D’ Or and was at Singh Sahib, with live ghazal singers, coupled with a delectable mix of delicacies, served in small portions to suit the taste of both vegetarian and non vegetarians. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exclusive Glenmorangie Range of Single Malts is available for dinner at Rs 3500 (plus taxes) from 21 June onwards for another three weeks at Singh Sahib. Singh Sahib has introduced new menu that serves authentic signature dishes from Pakistan, North India and Punjab along with live evening ghazals. Enjoy the magical flavours of undivided Punjab with the aroma of fragrant spices that waft from the live kitchen as the expert chefs create authentic specialities such as Raan Peshawari, Bhatti da Murg and Amritsari Macchi, Meat Beliram, Rara Murgh, Chargah and many more. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixFor select vegetarians, they have introduced an all-new Green Menu with a range of vegetarian delicacies like Potohari Challi Kebab, Bharta Rawalpindi, Dhingri Kofta, Paneer Makai and more. All this comes with in – house beverage specialist’s ‘beverage pairing’ recommendations, which is a must try. They also have three pre-set menus – Khaas Shakahari Dawaat, Sahib Dawaat and Sahib Khaas Dawaat, tailor-made for a special gathering with a choice of appetizers, soup, main course and dessert selection. So hurry and order your one.
Mickey McClearly is a name one doesn’t hear quite often. It seems to be a trend in our nation that artistes working behind the big screen are often not recognized. There are only a very few names that make themselves heard loud and clear. Let us tell you about him though. Remember the songs Khoya Khoya Chand and Hawa Hawai from Shaitan? Well, now you know who re-invented these old tracks and jazzed them up. He is the music composer for so many of Lucky Ali’s albums! Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’All the ad jingles you love to hum were made by this man; from Levi’s, Coca-Cola to Vodafone. His latest work is his new album, TV Dinners. Listen to this album, and you’ll get the full versions of all the ads you thought were fully existing songs. Millennium Post had a chat with this songwriter, composer, performer and producer.Music for this Chennai born, London educated, and now Mumbai based guy is a language. A language without which the world would cease to exist. Music is inseparable from him. We were keen on knowing how this unique idea of making songs out of the jingles came about. He said, ‘I would often find people looking for full songs whenever an ad jingle would come out. They thought that these jingles were actually songs that already existed. So I thought of making this album.’ Chase Every Dream is the first song from the album. The video features Ranveer Singh, Shradha Kapoor, Kalki Koechlin and Shaan, alongside people from the streets of Mumbai. Yes, you got it right! Chase your dream is the same jingle that we heard in the Levi’s ad. This song has many faces. The reason is very simple. It’s a song about dreams. And hence, it is a message that anyone and everyone can relate to. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou’ll also see the amazing Anushka Manchanda in this video. She has sung most of the tracks of this album. McClearly thinks, ‘Anushka has something very special about herself.’ She was also the voice behind the original Levi’s ad jingle. The FIFA fever has gripped the world now a days. And Chase every dream is a happy coincidence, says Mikey. Coming from London, he likes it when England wins. But obviously, it becomes quite hatke when you have to choose it as your favourite team. Mikey’s favourite team is Netherlands. But he thinks it’s Germany that would win it this time! Next time you hear a song and you really like it, our suggestion, know who made it. Isn’t it amazing when we get recognized for the great work we do?
The rich history of the Capital is going to come alive in the city. A theatrical journey into Delhi’s past will take you to the court of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and brings you the political intrigues that plagued his court. Being organised by Darwesh, the story centres the character of Roshanara Begum, the second daughter of Shah Jahan and one of the most powerful women in the 17 century. This event is an ode to women in the city which will take you back in time when Shah Jahan was unable to rule his empire in Shahjahanabad (now Old Delhi) which led to a constant battle of power and principles between his sons and daughters. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The story unfolds through dialogues between Shah Jahan’s daughters Jahanara and Roshanara. What makes this performance special is that it is set inside the tomb of Roshanara Begum also known as Baradari where Roshanara lay buried. The story is represented through the perspective of Roshanara Begum who followed her personal journey through her rise into power with the support of her brother Aurangzeb, her hatred towards her elder brother Dara Shikoh and her elder sister Jahanara Begum and eventually to her downfall.
The man is also the first to be diagnosed outside Africa, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, cautioning that since he was not sick on the plane he was unlikely to have infected other travellers.CDC chief Tom Frieden vowed that US health authorities would be able to contain the virus and the White House said President Barack Obama had been briefed by the CDC about the Texas case.‘We are stopping this in its tracks,’ said Frieden, describing the man as critically ill.The world’s largest outbreak of Ebola has infected more than 6,500 people across five west African countries and killed 3,091 since the start of the year, according to the World Health Organization.The CDC warned last week that a worst-case scenario could see Ebola cases explode to 1.4 million worldwide by January, but that such dire predictions could be avoided if resources are scaled up.The United States has already treated several patients who acquired Ebola during the West African outbreak, including Christian missionary doctors Kent Brantly and Rick Sacra, who have been declared free of the virus.