Month: August 2019

Super resolution phase measurements without entanglement

first_img Women more likely to suffer sports-related concussions, studies suggest This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “People have been trying to make entangled states of various physical systems, and this is hard to do,” Kevin Resch tells PhysOrg.com. “But if you can get the same result from measuring entanglement rather than preparing it, then it can make things much easier.” In order to get the super-resolution phase measurements, Resch and his colleagues created a device that was designed to measure six individual photons. “Rather than preparing the photons in an entangled state, we performed an entangling measurement. We used six photon detectors and recorded the events when all of them fired at the same time. We found that the oscillations are the same as those that follow a time-forward method of preparing entanglement.”The time-reversal approach, however, is very general. Resch explains that though it appears to work well with metrology, “it remains an interesting open question which other quantum protocols can be similarly simplified through a time-reversal approach.”Resch hopes that this technique will be able to make better measurements of very small features. “Many of the most sensitive measurements in quantum mechanics have to do with measuring fringes, looking for the applications where measuring more rapid oscillations gives better measurement.” He compares these fringes to markings on a ruler, pointing out that a meter stick with no markings would be inefficient for measuring objects much smaller than a meter. Add additional markings, though, and the meter stick becomes a more precise tool. Resch continues, “One needs a good ruler to measure small length changes. This might be a useful technique in metrology, with many future applications.”Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Super resolution phase measurements — without entanglement (2007, June 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-06-super-resolution-phase-entanglement.html Explore further What Resch, a scientist at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, is proposing is a time-reversal scheme for measuring the oscillations associated with photon entanglement. “Rather than preparing the state and then measuring,” he continues, “we measured the state that others were trying to prepare.”Work on this experiment, which demonstrated super resolution without creating entangled states, was performed by an international team of scientists, with the actual experiment done in Andrew White’s Quantum Technology Laboratory at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. Participants include scientists from Imperial College in London, University of Bristol in the U.K., the University of Vienna in Austria and Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. The results are published in Physical Review Letters, in a paper titled, “Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements.”“Quantum mechanics,” Resch explains, “is largely a tool for predicting probabilities. To find these, there are essentially three steps: preparation of an initial state, the evolution of that state, and the detection, or measurement, of a final state. The time reversal we refer to swaps the roles of the preparation and measurement steps.”Resch says that in addition to being easier than trying to prepare an entangled state, starting with the measuring step also provides the ability to use more photons in metrology: “Reversing the roles of preparation and measurement have allowed us to see phase super-resolution of up to six photons.” He explains that this technique was developed mainly to aid in quantum metrology, the ability to measure to super-precise levels. Prior to this work, only four photons had been used for quantum metrology. “Six photons have been entangled for other purposes,” Resch allows, “but for phase super-resolution, previous experiments had demonstrated up to four.”Another benefit to come from this demonstration was a further demarcation between phase super-resolution and phase super-sensitivity. “In metrology,” Resch explains, “there are two effects: resolution and sensitivity. For the most part, people have assumed that they are mainly equivalent.” Resch says that phase super-resolution describes rapid oscillations in an interference pattern, while phase super-sensitivity deals reducing phase uncertainty. “We have drawn a line between the two,” he continues. “We have derived separate criteria that have to be satisfied in order to claim super-sensitivity from super-resolution.last_img read more

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Salt Water System Could Generate Hydrogen

first_img In the proposal, physicist Roberto De Luca from the University of Salerno in Italy has suggested that flowing salt water could generate an electromotive force, which in turn could generate an electric power output. In his theoretical analysis, he considers letting salt water (containing sodium and chlorine ions) run through a rectangular pipe that has two metal electrodes on the sides, under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field. In this set-up, the Lorentz force acts on the sodium and chlorine ions in the salt water, creating a Faraday voltage across the two electrodes, and producing an electromotive force.”I started considering the question Dr. Pasquale Desideri, a Roman chemist, asked,” De Luca told PhysOrg.com. “If a transverse magnetic field is applied to salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe, would an electromotive force appear at the sides of the pipe itself? This question was interesting both from a didactical and a scientific point of view. Didactically, one could come up with an interdisciplinary lecture, making a comparison between the electrical transport properties of the ‘Fermi sea’ (the collection of free electrons in a metal) and the ‘ordinary sea’ (which a physicist could conceive as a collection of rather free Na+ and Cl- ionic charges diluted in water, besides a place to go in summertime).” De Luca discovered that an experiment conducted in 1972 (by Wright and Van Der Beken) had demonstrated that Desideri’s hypothesis was true: salt water flowing in a pipe under a transverse magnetic field does show an effect, similar to the Hall effect, in conducting metals. De Luca thought that this simple fact deserved more attention.As he showed in his analysis, in order to produce a steady current in this device, the positive and negative electrodes experience different reactions. At one electrode, water is reduced to its components, resulting in oxygen and hydrogen gas. At the other electrode, chlorine ions are oxidized, producing chlorine gas. De Luca investigated the minimum concentration of sodium chloride in the water required to maintain a steady current. He calculated that only a small concentration of the ions is needed to establish a potential difference between the electrodes, and normal salt water has a significantly higher concentration than required. (The average salinity of seawater is about 3.5%, and about 78% of these salts is sodium chloride.) The technique also requires that the salt water flow through rectangular pipes with a very small height (so that they are nearly one-dimensional). Although the technique wouldn’t work in most natural locations, De Luca suggests that some desalination plants – where salt water is forced to run through small ducts – may provide an adequate infrastructure for the system. If so, desalination plants might also function as alternative electric power sources. “When I was sure that an electromotive force and hydrogen gas could be obtained from letting salt water circulate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, I thought about the huge desalination plants, where intake of salt water from the sea is needed. In general, these plants are run by oil, even though they are mostly located in places where solar power is present in abundance. Getting some power out of these plants simply by applying a transverse magnetic field to pipes could mean saving some power. Besides, getting hydrogen gas from sea water could gives us hope that in the future we would not easily run out of fuel.'”There are still some challenges that this scheme faces, but De Luca has showed the potential using this method to produce hydrogen gas in a natural and inexpensive way. Apart from applications, the concept could be used in introductory physics classes to teach students about the transport properties of ionic aqueous solutions and conducting materials. “I am now sure that most people will come up saying that these applications are rather difficult to implement and, even though some uses of this simple theoretical analysis can be envisioned, the amount of power one can derive from these systems is rather small,” he said. “Scientifically, however, one is mainly concerned with the clear statement of some well-defined facts. In particular, I can say that it can be nowadays stated that hydrogen gas can be cheaply produced by solar energy, as already noticed in a previous paper, and can also be produced by simple electrodynamic effects. How cheaply in the latter case? Consider that seas do not ever stand still and that, luckily enough, there exist so called permanent magnets.” More information: De Luca, R. “Lorentz force on sodium and chlorine ions in a salt water solution flow under a transverse magnetic field.” European Journal of Physics, 30 (2009) 459-466.© 2009 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Salt Water System Could Generate Hydrogen (2009, March 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-03-salt-hydrogen.html Scientists revisit 1833 hydrogen production experimentcenter_img (PhysOrg.com) — The idea of generating hydrogen from salt water has often been claimed to work effectively. However, the systems proposed so far generally require a much greater energy input than the energy they produce, making them impractical for energy generation. Now, a recently revived system may be able to cheaply generate a small amount of power. In this illustration of the system, salt water flows through a rectangular pipe under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field, B0. The Lorentz force causes the charged sodium and chlorine ions to accumulate near the metal plates on the sides of the pipe, generating a constant electric field, E. Image credit: R. De Luca. Explore furtherlast_img read more

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Nvidia releases the KalEl quadcore mobile chip

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Nvidia has announced their brand new quad-core mobile processor at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. The new processor was given the interestingly superheroic name Kal-El. Just in case you did not read a lot of comic books as a kid, this is the name that Superman was given by his parents on his home planet of Krypton. Citation: Nvidia releases the Kal-El quad-core mobile chip (2011, February 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-02-nvidia-kal-el-quad-core-mobile-chip.html Explore further During a live demonstration at the Mobile World Congress Nvidia showed off the speed that Kal-El can give to web browsing, with speeds that are two times faster than other dual-core processors currently on the market. Of course, you really cannot simply take the companies word for it. A lot of factors can effect the speed of browsing.It is time for us to bring in an objective measure. When tested, Kal-El received a CoreMark score of 11,352. That score is, as promised, roughly twice the performance rating score of Nvidia’s Tegra 2. The Tegra 2 received a CoreMark score of 5,840. NVIDIA And Opera Team To Accelerate The Full Web On Mobile Devicescenter_img Project Kal-El web-browsing benchmark The Kal-El processor is expected to ship in as-yet-unnamed tablets by August of 2011 and be featured in smartphones by Christmas 2011. Though a few lucky customers are already getting samples of the products made with the new Nvidia chip currently. The names of the devices that are sporting these enhanced chips were not released. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Coremark performance on Kal-El As it turns out Kal-El is only the beginning of these super hero themed chips. A whole line of heroic processors are expected to come to the market between now and 2014, with increasing speeds. Future chips will sport names such as Wayne, Logan, and Stark. Stark is expected to be the most advanced of the planned chips in this line with an improvement in performance of up to 75x, when compared to the Tegra 2. More information: Nvidia blog: blogs.nvidia.com/2011/02/tegra … re-mobile-processor/last_img read more

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ROHM demos compact hydrogen fuel cell

first_img Explore further (Phys.org)—Japanese electronic parts supplier ROHM has unveiled a compact hydrogen fuel cell, capable of recharging cell phones, tablet computers, etc., at this year’s CEATEC—Japan’s largest consumer electronics show. The fuel cell is available in two configurations: one that serves as a phone jacket, and one that works as a standalone USB device. While it can be stored for up to twenty years, the cell is good for just one charging session. © 2012 Phys.org The main attraction of the fuel cell is its size: the jacket version adds minimal bulk to a phone, while the stand-alone version is slightly bigger than a pack of cigarettes. Company reps at the show claim the fuel cell can charge a phone in about two hours. A major detraction, however, is its longevity. Once a fuel cell has been depleted, it must be thrown away, including the attractive casing. Citation: ROHM demos compact hydrogen fuel cell (2012, October 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-rohm-demos-compact-hydrogen-fuel.htmlcenter_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Hydrogen fuel cell for phone charging set for 2013 Credit: Diginfo The fuel cell functions by creating hydrogen from a very small sheet of resin-solidified calcium compound. It is then combined with polymer electrolyte power generation technology to create five watt hours of electricity. The sheet of calcium is sealed in plastic and, according to ROHM representatives, the fuel cell will work as long as it remains sealed. As such, the fuel cell could be stored for many years, making it an attractive option for long-term storage situations.ROHM’s plan, once the fuel cells become available in stores next year, is to target consumers who would purchase them as a supplemental means for recharging their phones and other electronic devices. Instead of being out of luck if their phone battery dies in the middle of the day, users can simply pop over to a convenience store, buy a fuel cell, and use it to charge their phone while they’re at lunch. Of course, widespread use of such technology will lead to more unrecyclable materials heading for the local landfill; but, none of it will be toxic as is the case with batteries. The company notes that the fuel cells don’t produce any harmful emissions, and if necessary can be chained or combined to produce more power. ROHM adds that they’ve also built a much larger, 200 watt version of the fuel cell charger for other applications. The company hasn’t revealed a price point for the fuel cells, but it’s reasonable to assume that their disposable nature would necessitate a relatively low cost; that is, if ROHM wants to attract customers to this new technology.last_img read more

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From metabolism to function—the extreme structural adaptations of photoreceptors

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2018 Phys.org Normally, cells maintain a basal level of glycolysis through constitutive expression of the hexokinase I gene. Hexokinases activate glucose by turning it into glucose-6-phosphate. At this point, glucose-6-phosphate can either continue through glycolysis, or shunt through the pentose phosphate pathway to create NADPH, and building blocks for nucleotide synthesis. Many post-mitotic cells that require a more flexible hexokinase use a slightly different version called hexokinase II. Heart and muscle cells need to be able to ramp up their activity to high levels in a short time period. They have a hexokinase II that localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria where it can readily snap up ATP for to generate glucose-6-phosphate.The concentration of hexokinase II in cancer cells is typically increased up to 200-fold. These cells can therefore maintain a high glycolytic rate even in the presence of abundant oxygen. This extreme ‘aerobic glycolysis’ in tumors is frequently called the Warburg effect. Curiously, photoreceptors also show this high hexokinase II expression and aerobic glycolysis, but cancers of the retina are very rare. When tumors do form they usually occur in either the pigment epithelial cells, or early in development in cones that have a double knockout to both copies of their retinoblastoma gene.The retinoblastoma gene (RB) is known as a tumor suppressor gene. It is critical in controlling the precise number of cells within several sensory systems that build elaborate ciliary structures as detectors. In the cochlea, for example, there is an overpopulation of hair cells and loss of hearing when RB is absent. In adults with hearing loss, it might be possible to regenerate new hair cells by artificially reducing RB activity. Some researchers have even suggested that RB control pathway is the big one that first made multicellular life possible.The retina is precariously poised at the edge of what is even metabolically possible. It only is able to maintain its prodigious output because of the many special accomodations provided by its unique supporting cells. For example, the pigmented epithelial layer which digests and renews the outer segments of its photoreceptors, or the glial cells in the optic nerve head to which ganglion cells axons outsource mitophagy of their own oxidatively damaged mitochondrial DNA. Both rods and cones must regenerate their lipid rich outer segments at a rate of 10 percent per daily in order to continue to function properly. One of the most puzzling aspects of cancer is how cells inevitably manage to reactivate precisely those few genes that can turn them into tumors. One example, discussed at length here yesterday, is the restoration of telomerase or alternative telmore repair enzymes that enable indefinite chromsome replication. Another example is the emergency drafting of backup hexokinases to kick off supplementary glycolysis. Citation: From metabolism to function—the extreme structural adaptations of photoreceptors (2018, June 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-metabolism-functionthe-extreme-photoreceptors.html More information: Lolita Petit et al. Aerobic Glycolysis Is Essential for Normal Rod Function and Controls Secondary Cone Death in Retinitis Pigmentosa, Cell Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.04.111 Researchers continue to seek strategy for starving brain tumors Journal information: Cell Reports The way they both create the building blocks to supply this rapid turnover of biomass is through aerobic glycolysis. But rods and cones do not have the same metabolisms, and correspondingly, they are able to fulfill very different functions. For example, rods are metabolically less costly than cones and consume only about 10^8 ATP per second in darkness. Rod activity also saturates in bright light, while cones, which do not saturate, end up using much more ATP in their downtream signalling pathways.One way to look under the hood and see what makes rods and cones tick to see what happens when they are put under stress. In a paper recently published in Cell Reports, researchers examined mouse retinas that had hexokinase II deleted from either rods or cones. They also knocked out additional genes to create models of retinal degeneration as occurs in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To quantify flux through aerobic glycolysis they measured lactate production by varius lactate dehydrogenases (LDH). Approximately 90 percent of the total photoreceptor glucose supply proceeds through aerobic glycolysis to form lactate. LDH mediates the bidirectional conversion between pyruvate and lactate and serves as a switch between aerobic glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.The researchers found that rods adapt to decreased aerobic glycolysis by increasing their mitochondrial number while cones do not. Although rods survived, their reduced aerobic glycolysis created a nutrient shortage and subsequent loss of cones. This pattern mirrors the observed primary insult to rods in retinitis pigmentosa which is later followed by cone death. Ultimately, the researchers were able to show that cones are dependant on lactate supplied by rods.It is speculated that aerobic glycolysis is adapted in rods and cones to provide sufficient glucose inputs to feed their respective pentose phosphate pathways. The subsequent generation of NAPH and lipid synthesis allows each to recycle the appropriate amounts of visual chromophore. Understanding their unique survival requirements is essential to creating therapies to restore degenerating rods and cones. Explore further Photoreceptor types. Credit: webvision.med.utah.edulast_img read more

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Horses on the go

first_imgVisitors of United art Fair will witness some fine Aiyannar terracota art. The ancient art of making art pieces by moulding and baking unglzed clay, which is limited to a few artists in country will be on display. Magnificent figures of horses  that were worshiped as protective dieties in Tamil Nadu will be a part of the exhibition. These horses are upto six meters in height, accessorised with bells, mirrors, grotesque faces and crocodiles among other regional variations. The style of the horses vary from area to area; some are more realistic or more abstract but they are all complete with harness and reins. The form of these terracotta horses were found at Aiyanar shrines in Salem and Pudukottai districts was noted in 1909. The curator of this show Garima Jain is a young facilitator for art projects and promoter of contemporary Indian Art and Craft. The pieces are on display to promote and support dying art of terracota. The pieces will be on display at Pragati Maidan during the fair.last_img read more

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Glen and I

first_imgGuests at Singh Sahib, Eros Hotel, Nehru Place, experienced a specially crafted five-course modern Indian menu paired with different expressions of Glenmorangie. Experience the art and journey of malt making along with the history, attributes, and consumption styles of luxury spirits over a formal tasting session with Sommelier Rohan Jelkie of Moet Hennessy India. Priced at Rs 3500 (plus taxes) per person, the evening offered single malts with four variants of Glenmorangie – The Lasanta, The Quinta Ruban, The Original and The Nectar D’ Or and was at Singh Sahib, with live ghazal singers, coupled with a delectable mix of delicacies, served in small portions to suit the taste of both vegetarian and non vegetarians. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exclusive Glenmorangie Range of Single Malts is available for dinner at Rs 3500 (plus taxes) from 21 June onwards for another three weeks at Singh Sahib. Singh Sahib has introduced new menu that serves authentic signature dishes from Pakistan, North India and Punjab along with live evening ghazals. Enjoy the magical flavours of undivided Punjab with the aroma of fragrant spices that waft from  the live kitchen as the expert chefs create authentic specialities such as Raan Peshawari, Bhatti da Murg and Amritsari Macchi, Meat Beliram, Rara Murgh, Chargah and many more.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixFor select vegetarians, they have introduced an all-new Green Menu with a range of vegetarian delicacies like Potohari Challi Kebab, Bharta Rawalpindi, Dhingri Kofta, Paneer Makai and more. All this comes with in – house beverage specialist’s ‘beverage pairing’ recommendations, which is a must try. They also have three pre-set menus – Khaas Shakahari Dawaat, Sahib Dawaat and Sahib Khaas Dawaat, tailor-made for a special gathering with a choice of appetizers, soup, main course and dessert selection. So hurry and order your one.last_img read more

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Chase every dream

first_imgMickey McClearly is a name one doesn’t hear quite often. It seems to be a trend in our nation that artistes working behind the big screen are often not recognized. There are only a very few names that make themselves heard loud and clear. Let us tell you about him though. Remember the songs Khoya Khoya Chand and Hawa Hawai from Shaitan? Well, now you know who re-invented these old tracks and jazzed them up. He is the music composer for so many of Lucky Ali’s albums! Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’All the ad jingles you love to hum were made by this man; from Levi’s, Coca-Cola to Vodafone. His  latest work is his new album, TV Dinners. Listen to this album, and you’ll get the full versions of all the ads you thought were fully existing songs. Millennium Post had a chat with this songwriter, composer, performer and producer.Music for this Chennai born, London educated, and now Mumbai based guy is a language. A language without which the world would cease to exist. Music is inseparable from him. We were keen on knowing how this unique idea of making songs out of the jingles came about. He said, ‘I would often find people looking for full songs whenever an ad jingle would come out. They thought that these jingles were actually songs that already existed. So I thought of making this album.’ Chase Every Dream is the first song from the album. The video features Ranveer Singh, Shradha Kapoor, Kalki Koechlin and Shaan, alongside people from the streets of Mumbai. Yes, you got it right! Chase your dream is the same jingle that we heard in the Levi’s ad. This song has many faces. The reason is very simple. It’s a song about dreams. And hence, it is a message that anyone and everyone can relate to. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou’ll also see the amazing Anushka Manchanda in this video. She has sung most of the tracks of this album. McClearly thinks, ‘Anushka has something very special about herself.’ She was also the voice behind the original Levi’s ad jingle. The FIFA fever has gripped the world now a days. And Chase every dream is a happy coincidence, says Mikey. Coming from London, he likes it when England wins. But obviously, it becomes quite hatke when you have to choose it as your favourite team. Mikey’s favourite team is Netherlands. But he thinks it’s Germany that would win it this time! Next time you hear a song and you really like it, our suggestion, know who made it. Isn’t it amazing when we get recognized for the great work we do?last_img read more

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The journey not forgotten

first_imgThe rich history of the Capital is going to come alive in the city. A theatrical journey into Delhi’s past will take you to the court of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and brings you the political intrigues that plagued his court. Being organised by Darwesh, the story centres the character of Roshanara Begum, the second daughter of Shah Jahan and one of the most powerful women in the 17 century. This event is an ode to women in the city which will take you back in time when Shah Jahan was unable to rule his empire in Shahjahanabad (now Old Delhi) which led to a constant battle of power and principles between his sons and daughters.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The story unfolds through dialogues between Shah Jahan’s daughters Jahanara and Roshanara. What makes this performance special is that it is set inside the tomb of Roshanara Begum also known as Baradari where Roshanara lay buried. The story is represented through the perspective of Roshanara Begum who followed her personal journey through her rise into power with the support of her brother Aurangzeb, her hatred towards her elder brother Dara Shikoh and her elder sister Jahanara Begum and eventually to her downfall.last_img read more

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US Ebola case First diagnosis outside Africa

first_imgThe man is also the first to be diagnosed outside Africa, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, cautioning that since he was not sick on the plane he was unlikely to have infected other travellers.CDC chief Tom Frieden vowed that US health authorities would be able to contain the virus and the White House said President Barack Obama had been briefed by the CDC about the Texas case.‘We are stopping this in its tracks,’ said Frieden, describing the man as critically ill.The world’s largest outbreak of Ebola has infected more than 6,500 people across five west African countries and killed 3,091 since the start of the year, according to the World Health Organization.The CDC warned last week that a worst-case scenario could see Ebola cases explode to 1.4 million worldwide by January, but that such dire predictions could be avoided if resources are scaled up.The United States has already treated several patients who acquired Ebola during the West African outbreak, including Christian missionary doctors Kent Brantly and Rick Sacra, who have been declared free of the virus.last_img read more

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